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 | **B.** Clear-cut history of worsening of cognition by report or observation;​ and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          | | **B.** Clear-cut history of worsening of cognition by report or observation;​ and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          |
 | **C.** The initial and most prominent cognitive deficits are evident on history and examination in ''​1''​ of the following categories. \\ \\ a. __Amnestic presentation__:​ It is the most common syndromic presentation of AD dementia. The deficits should include impairment in learning and recall of recently learned information. There should also be evidence of cognitive dysfunction in at least ''​1''​ other cognitive domain, as defined earlier in the text. \\ \\ b. __Nonamnestic presentations__:​\\ ​ • Language presentation:​ word-finding deficits, but deficits in other cognitive domains should be present.\\ ​ • Visuospatial presentation:​ spatial cognition deficits, including object agnosia, impaired face recognition,​ simultanagnosia,​ and alexia. Deficits in other cognitive domains should be present.\\ • Executive dysfunction:​ deficits of impaired reasoning, judgment, and problem solving. Deficits in other cognitive domains should be present. ​ | | **C.** The initial and most prominent cognitive deficits are evident on history and examination in ''​1''​ of the following categories. \\ \\ a. __Amnestic presentation__:​ It is the most common syndromic presentation of AD dementia. The deficits should include impairment in learning and recall of recently learned information. There should also be evidence of cognitive dysfunction in at least ''​1''​ other cognitive domain, as defined earlier in the text. \\ \\ b. __Nonamnestic presentations__:​\\ ​ • Language presentation:​ word-finding deficits, but deficits in other cognitive domains should be present.\\ ​ • Visuospatial presentation:​ spatial cognition deficits, including object agnosia, impaired face recognition,​ simultanagnosia,​ and alexia. Deficits in other cognitive domains should be present.\\ • Executive dysfunction:​ deficits of impaired reasoning, judgment, and problem solving. Deficits in other cognitive domains should be present. ​ |
-| **D.** The diagnosis of probable AD dementia **SHOULD NOT** be applied when there is evidence of: \\ \\ a. Substantial concomitant cerebrovascular disease, defined by a history of a [[geri:​stroke|stroke]] temporally related to the onset or worsening of cognitive impairment; or the presence of multiple or extensive infarcts or severe white matter hyperintensity burden; or \\ b. Core features of [[geri:​dementia:​lewy-body|Dementia with Lewy bodies]] other than dementia itself; or \\ c. Prominent features of behavioural variant [[geri:​dementia:​frontotemporal|frontotemporal dementia]]; or \\ d. Prominent features of semantic variant [[geri:​dementia:​ppa|primary progressive aphasia]] or nonfluent/​agrammatic variant [[geri:​dementia:​ppa|primary progressive aphasia]]; or \\ e. Evidence for another concurrent, active neurological disease, or a non-neurological medical comorbidity or use of medication that could have a substantial effect on cognition. ​                                                                                                                 |+| **D.** The diagnosis of probable AD dementia **SHOULD NOT** be applied when there is evidence of: \\ \\ a. Substantial concomitant cerebrovascular disease, defined by a history of a [[geri:​stroke|stroke]] temporally related to the onset or worsening of cognitive impairment; or the presence of multiple or extensive infarcts or severe white matter hyperintensity burden; or \\ b. Core features of [[geri:​dementia:​lewy-body|Dementia with Lewy bodies]] other than dementia itself; or \\ c. Prominent features of behavioural variant [[geri:​dementia:​frontotemporal|frontotemporal dementia]]; or \\ d. Prominent features of semantic variant [[geri:​dementia:​primary-progressive-aphasia-ppa|primary progressive aphasia]] or nonfluent/​agrammatic variant [[geri:​dementia:​primary-progressive-aphasia-ppa|primary progressive aphasia]]; or \\ e. Evidence for another concurrent, active neurological disease, or a non-neurological medical comorbidity or use of medication that could have a substantial effect on cognition. ​                                                                                                                 |
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