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meds:antidepressants:home [2020/05/18 14:43]
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 == History == == History ==
-The development and history of antidepressants began in the 1950s, with the clinical use of two antidepressant drugs: iproniazid (a monoamine-oxidase inhibitor) and imipramine (a [[meds:​antidepressants:​tca:​home|tricyclic antidepressant]]).[([[http://​blogs.discovermagazine.com/​bodyhorrors/​2016/​01/​27/​2081/#​.WhdDe7Q-fdQ|Discover Magazine: The Psychic Energizer!: The Serendipitous Discovery of the First Antidepressant]])] Iproniazid was used to treat tuberculosis at the time, but it was noticed that it also significantly improved the mood of patients, beyond just treating the medical illness. Imipramine, on the other hand, was discovered through a series of trials and errors by experimentation by Swiss psychiatrist Roland Kuhn.[([[https://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​27738369|Steinberg,​ H., & Himmerich, H. (2012). Roland Kuhn—100th Birthday of an Innovator of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Psychopharmacology bulletin, 45(1), 48.]])][([[https://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​25930134|Brown,​ W. A., & Rosdolsky, M. (2015). The clinical discovery of imipramine. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(5), 426-429.]])] These two discoveries heralded the first step towards psychopharmacology,​ as the only other major treatment that was available at the time was [[brain-stimulation:​ect|electroconvulsive therapy]]. The efficacy of these medications led to various theories on why the medications worked, including the monoamine hypothesis. TCAs and MAOis remained the mainstay of antidepressant treatment until the introduction of [[meds:​antidepressants:​ssri:​fluoxetine|fluoxetine]],​ a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in the late 1980s.[([[https://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​19442174|López-Muñoz,​ F., & Alamo, C. (2009). Monoaminergic neurotransmission:​ the history of the discovery of antidepressants from 1950s until today. Current pharmaceutical design, 15(14), 1563-1586.]])]+The development and history of antidepressants began in the 1950s, with the clinical use of two antidepressant drugs: iproniazid (a [[meds:​antidepressants:​maoi:​home|monoamine-oxidase inhibitor]]) and imipramine (a [[meds:​antidepressants:​tca:​home|tricyclic antidepressant]]).[([[http://​blogs.discovermagazine.com/​bodyhorrors/​2016/​01/​27/​2081/#​.WhdDe7Q-fdQ|Discover Magazine: The Psychic Energizer!: The Serendipitous Discovery of the First Antidepressant]])] Iproniazid was used to treat tuberculosis at the time, but it was noticed that it also significantly improved the mood of patients, beyond just treating the medical illness. Imipramine, on the other hand, was discovered through a series of trials and errors by experimentation by Swiss psychiatrist Roland Kuhn.[([[https://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​27738369|Steinberg,​ H., & Himmerich, H. (2012). Roland Kuhn—100th Birthday of an Innovator of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Psychopharmacology bulletin, 45(1), 48.]])][([[https://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​25930134|Brown,​ W. A., & Rosdolsky, M. (2015). The clinical discovery of imipramine. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(5), 426-429.]])] These two discoveries heralded the first step towards psychopharmacology,​ as the only other major treatment that was available at the time was [[brain-stimulation:​ect|electroconvulsive therapy]]. The efficacy of these medications led to various theories on why the medications worked, including the monoamine hypothesis. TCAs and MAOis remained the mainstay of antidepressant treatment until the introduction of [[meds:​antidepressants:​ssri:​fluoxetine|fluoxetine]],​ a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in the late 1980s.[([[https://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pubmed/​19442174|López-Muñoz,​ F., & Alamo, C. (2009). Monoaminergic neurotransmission:​ the history of the discovery of antidepressants from 1950s until today. Current pharmaceutical design, 15(14), 1563-1586.]])]
  
 == The SSRI Revolution == == The SSRI Revolution ==