Substance/Medication-Induced Anxiety Disorder

Substance/medication-induced anxiety disorder is diagnosed after an individual uses a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, or a toxin exposure) that leads to prominent symptoms of panic or anxiety.

Criterion A

Panic attacks or anxiety is predominant in the clinical picture.

Criterion B

There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings of both (1) and (2):

  1. The symptoms in Criterion A developed during or soon after substance intoxication or withdrawal or after exposure to a medication
  2. The involved substance/medication is capable of producing the symptoms in Criterion A
Criterion C

The disturbance is not better explained by an anxiety disorder that is not substance/medication-induced. Such evidence of an independent anxiety disorder could include the following:

  • The symptoms precede the onset of the substance/medication use; the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time (e.g. - about 1 month) after the cessation of acute withdrawal or severe intoxication: or there is other evidence suggesting the existence of an independent non-substance/medication-induced anxiety disorder (e.g. - a history of recurrent non-substance/medication-related episodes).
Criterion D

The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium.

Criterion E

The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.



Specify the substance:

  • Alcohol
  • Caffeine
  • Cannabis
  • Phencyclidine
  • Other hallucinogen
  • Inhalant
  • Opioid
  • Sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic
  • Amphetamine (or other stimulant)
  • Cocaine
  • Other (or unknown) substance

Common causes of a substance/medication-induced anxiety disorder include recreational drugs such as cocaine, caffeine, amphetamines, amphetamines, and serotonergic drugs.